5G NR: New Radio

5G NR (New Radio) is a new radio access technology (RAT) developed by 3GPP for the 5G (fifth generation) mobile network. It was designed to be the global standard for the air interface of 5G networks.

The 3GPP specification 38 series provides the technical details behind NR, the RAT beyond LTE.

The study on NR within 3GPP started in 2015, and the first specification release was made available by the end of 2017. While the 3GPP standardization process was ongoing, industry had already begun efforts to implement infrastructure compliant with the draft standard, with the expectation that the first large scale commercial launch of 5G New Radio would occur in 2019.

5G NR: 3GPP Release 16 includes 5G definitions
5G New Radio: 3GPP Release 16 includes 5G definitions

Frequency bands

The Frequency bands for 5G New Radio are being separated into two frequency ranges:[4]

Frequency Range 1 (FR1), including sub-6 GHz frequency bands
Frequency Range 2 (FR2), including frequency bands in the mmWave range (20-60GHz)

5G NR:  New Radio Interface

5G NR Development

In 2018, 3GPP published Release 15, which include what is described as “Phase 1” standardization for the 5G NR standard. 3GPP is expected to publish Release 16, which include the “Phase 2” of 5G NR, by the end of year 2019

5G NR Deployment modes

Initial launches will depend on existing LTE 4G infrastructure in non-standalone (NSA) mode, before maturation of the standalone (SA) mode with the 5G core network.

Non-Standalone mode

Non-Standalone (NSA) mode of 5G New Radio refers to an option of 5G NR deployment that depends on the control plane of existing LTE network for control functions, while 5G NR exclusively focused on user plane. The advantage of doing so is reported to speed up 5G adoption, however some operators and vendors have criticized prioritizing the introduction of 5G NR NSA on the grounds that it could hinder the implementation of the standalone mode of the network.

Standalone mode

Standalone (SA) mode of 5G New Radio refers to using 5G cells for both signalling and information transfer. It includes the new 5G Packet Core architecture instead of relying on the 4G Evolved Packet Core. It would allow the deployment of 5G without the LTE network. It is expected to have lower cost, better efficiency, and assist development of new use cases.

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5G Frequency Bands

5G Networks

Frequency bands for 5G are divided into “sub 6GHz” and “mmWave” bands. “Sub 6” is generally for longer range coverage, with in-building penetration. “mmWave” bands use higher frequencies which offer short range, and no or little penetration of building structures.

This list of 5G frequency bands is taken from the latest published version of the 3GPP TS 38.101,the following tables list the specified frequency bands and the channel bandwidths of the 5G NR standard.

Note that the NR bands are defined with prefix of “n”. When the NR band is overlapping with the 4G LTE band, they share the same band number.

Frequency Range 1

BandDuplex mode[A 1]ƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink[A 2] (MHz)Downlink[A 3] (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
n1FDD2100IMTn651920 – 19802110 – 21701905, 10, 15, 20
n2FDD1900PCS[A 4]n251850 – 19101930 – 1990805, 10, 15, 20
n3FDD1800DCS1710 – 17851805 – 1880955, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n5FDD850CLR824 – 849869 – 894455, 10, 15, 20
n7FDD2600IMT‑E2500 – 25702620 – 26901205, 10, 15, 20
n8FDD900Extended GSM880 – 915925 – 960455, 10, 15, 20
n12FDD700Lower SMH699 – 716729 – 746305, 10, 15
n14FDD700Upper SMH788 – 798758 – 768−305, 10
n18FDD850Lower 800 (Japan)815 – 830860 – 875455, 10, 15
n20FDD800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862791 – 821−415, 10, 15, 20
n25FDD1900Extended PCS[A 5]1850 – 19151930 – 1995805, 10, 15, 20
n28FDD700APT703 – 748758 – 803555, 10, 15, 20
n30FDD2300WCS[A 6]2305 – 23152350 – 2360455, 10
n34TDD2100IMT2010 – 2025N/A5
n38TDD2600IMT‑E[A 7]2570 – 2620N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n39TDD1900DCS–IMT Gap1880 – 1920N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40
n40TDD2300S-Band2300 – 2400N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80
n41TDD2500BRSn902496 – 2690N/A10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n48TDD3500CBRS (US)3550 – 3700N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n50TDD1500L‑Band (EU)1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80[A 8]
n51TDD1500Extended L‑Band (EU)1427 – 1432N/A5
n65FDD2100Extended IMT1920 – 20102110 – 22001905, 10, 15, 20
n66FDD1700Extended AWS[A 9]1710 – 17802110 – 2200[6]4005, 10, 15, 20, 40
n70FDD2000AWS‑41695 – 17101995 – 20203005, 10, 15, 20[A 8], 25[A 8]
n71FDD600Digital Dividend (US)663 – 698617 – 652−465, 10, 15, 20
n74FDD1500Lower L‑Band (US)1427 – 14701475 – 1518485, 10, 15, 20
n75SDL1500L‑Band (EU)N/A1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n76SDL1500Extended L‑Band (EU)N/A1427 – 1432N/A5
n77TDD3700C-Band3300 – 4200N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n78TDD3500C-Bandn773300 – 3800N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n79TDD4700C-Band4400 – 5000N/A40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n80SUL1800DCS1710 – 1785N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n81SUL900Extended GSM880 – 915N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n82SUL800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n83SUL700APT703 – 748N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n84SUL2100IMT1920 – 1980N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n86SUL1700Extended AWS1710 – 1780N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40
n90TDD2500BRS2496 – 2690N/A10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
BandDuplex
mode[A 1]
ƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink[A 2] (MHz)Downlink[A 3] (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
  1. ^ Frequency division duplexing (FDD); time division duplexing (TDD); FDD supplemental downlink (SDL); FDD supplemental uplink (SUL)
  2. ^ UE transmit; BS receive
  3. ^ UE receive; BS transmit
  4. ^ Blocks A–F
  5. ^ Blocks A–G
  6. ^ Blocks A–B
  7. ^ Duplex Spacing
  8. ^ Downlink only
  9. ^ Blocks A–J

Chart showing 5G Frequency Bands

5G Frequency Bands
5G Frequency Bands

Frequency Range 2 (mmWave bands)

Bandƒ (GHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink / Downlink[B 1] (GHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
n25726LMDS26.50 – 29.5050, 100, 200, 400
n25824K-band24.25 – 27.5050, 100, 200, 400
n26039Ka-band37.00 – 40.0050, 100, 200, 400
n26128Ka-bandn25727.50 – 28.3550, 100, 200, 400
Bandƒ (GHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink / Downlink[B 1] (GHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
  1.  Time division duplexing (TDD) mode

Chart showing 5G mmWave bands

5G mmWave Spectrum
5G mmWave Spectrum

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5G NR frequency bands

RF Frequency bands for 5G NR are being separated into two different frequency ranges.

Frequency Range 1 (FR1)

FR1 includes sub-6GHz frequency bands, some of which are bands traditionally used by previous standards, but has been extended to cover potential new spectrum offerings from 410 MHz to 7125 MHz.

Frequency Range 2 (FR2)

FR2 includes frequency bands from 24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz. Bands in this millimeter wave (mmWave, MMW) range have much shorter range but higher available bandwidth than bands in the FR1.

Frequency bands and channel bandwidths

From the latest published version of the 3GPP TS 38.101, the following tables list the specified frequency bands and the channel bandwidths of the 5G NR standard.

Note that the NR bands are defined with prefix of “n”. When the NR band is overlapping with the legacy 4G LTE band, they share the same band number.

Frequency Range 1

BandDuplex modeƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink (MHz)Downlink (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths (MHz)
n1FDD2100IMT1920 – 19802110 – 21701905, 10, 15, 20
n2FDD1900PCS[A 4]n251850 – 19101930 – 1990805, 10, 15, 20
n3FDD1800DCS1710 – 17851805 – 1880955, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n5FDD850CLR824 – 849869 – 894455, 10, 15, 20
n7FDD2600IMT‑E2500 – 25702620 – 26901205, 10, 15, 20
n8FDD900Extended GSM880 – 915925 – 960455, 10, 15, 20
n12FDD700Lower SMH699 – 716729 – 746305, 10, 15
n20FDD800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862791 – 821−415, 10, 15, 20
n25FDD1900Extended PCS1850 – 19151930 – 1995805, 10, 15, 20
n28FDD700APT703 – 748758 – 803555, 10, 15, 20
n34TDD2100IMT2010 – 2025N/A5
n38TDD2600IMT‑E[A 5]n412570 – 2620N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n39TDD1900DCS–IMT Gap1880 – 1920N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40
n40TDD2300S-Band2300 – 2400N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80
n41TDD2500BRS2496 – 2690N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n50TDD1500L‑Band (EU)1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80[A 6]
n51TDD1500Extended L‑Band (EU)1427 – 1432N/A5
n66FDD1700Extended AWS[A 7]1710 – 17802110 – 2200[6]4005, 10, 15, 20, 40
n70FDD2000AWS‑41695 – 17101995 – 20203005, 10, 15, 20[A 6], 25[A 6]
n71FDD600Digital Dividend (US)663 – 698617 – 652−465, 10, 15, 20
n74FDD1500Lower L‑Band (US)1427 – 14701475 – 1518485, 10, 15, 20
n75SDL[A 8]1500L‑Band (EU)N/A1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n76SDL[A 8]1500Extended L‑Band (EU)N/A1427 – 1432N/A5
n77TDD3700C-Band3300 – 4200N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n78TDD3500C-Bandn773300 – 3800N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n79TDD4700C-Band4400 – 5000N/A40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n80SUL[A 9]1800DCS1710 – 1785N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n81SUL[A 9]900Extended GSM880 – 915N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n82SUL[A 9]800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n83SUL[A 9]700APT703 – 748N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n84SUL[A 9]1900IMT1920 – 1980N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n86SUL[A 9]1700Extended AWSn801710 – 1780N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40

Frequency Range 2

Bandƒ (GHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink / Downlink(GHz)Channel bandwidths (MHz)
n25726LMDS26.50 – 29.5050, 100, 200, 400
n25824K-band24.25 – 27.5050, 100, 200, 400
n26039Ka-band37.00 – 40.0050, 100, 200, 400
n26128Ka-bandn25727.50 – 28.3550, 100, 200, 400

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5G Terminology: The gNB

5G specifications are ongoing, so there are new acronyms to remember.
So after the BTS (Base Transceiver Station) in 2G, the NodeB in 3G, the eNB in 4G, here comes the gNB in 5G.

Tnew radio access technology is called “NR” and replaces “LTE”, and the new base station is called gNB (or gNodeB), and replaces the eNB (or eNodeB or Evolved Node B).

GenerationRadio TechnologyBase Station Name
2GGSMBTS (Base Transceiver Station)
3GUMTSNodeB
4GLTEeNB, Evolved NodeB
5GNRgNB, G???? NodeB

The “g” in gNB stands for “Next Generation NodeB”

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