5G technology & Solutions
5G is the fifth generation cellular network technology. The industry association 3GPP defines any system using “5G NR” (5G New Radio) software as “5G”, a definition that came into general use by late 2018.
5G networks are digitalcellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is divided into small geographical areas called cells
5G Frequency Bands
5G NR (New Radio) has been developed to operate in two distinct bands;
- sub-6 GHz (3GPP 38.104-5.2.1 FR1),
- mmWave (3GPP 38.104-5.2.2 FR2).
Despite actually running into the 7 GHz band, FR1 continues to be commonly referred to as the “Sub-6 GHz” band.
- FR1: 410 to 7125 MHz
- FR2: 24250 to 52600 MHz
5G Technology: FDD and TDD modes
Each band may operate in either FDD or TDD duplex mode. A band may be a supplementary downlink-only (SDL) or uplink-only (SUL) band used to provide additional capacity in the respective direction.
Standalone (SA) and Non-Standalone 5G Technology
Bands are also classified as either:
- SA – Stand Alone, meaning they can operate totally independent on 4G LTE networks, or
- NSA – Non Stand Alone, which require the data call to be established over 4G LTE with the 5G carrier then added as a secondary layer.
Due to the range of frequencies in use 5G NR uses four different Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) modes; 15, 30, and 60 kHz for sub-6 GHz (FR1) bands; 60 and 120 kHz for mmWave (FR2) bands. Channel bandwidths vary based on SCS, with many only supporting a 5 MHz channel width with an SCS of 15 kHz.
5G Technology and Millimeter Waves (mmWave)
Millimeter waves have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to smaller size; The waves also have trouble passing through building walls. Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks
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