5G technology & Solutions
5G is the fifth generation cellular network technology. The industry association 3GPP defines any system using “5G NR” (5G New Radio) software as “5G”, a definition that came into general use by late 2018.
5G NR (New Radio) has been developed to operate in two distinct bands;
- sub-6 GHz (3GPP 38.104-5.2.1 FR1),
- mmWave (3GPP 38.104-5.2.2 FR2).
Despite actually running into the 7 GHz band, FR1 continues to be commonly referred to as the “Sub-6 GHz” band.
- FR1: 410 to 7125 MHz
- FR2: 24250 to 52600 MHz
5G Technology: FDD and TDD modes
Each band may operate in either FDD or TDD duplex mode. A band may be a supplementary downlink-only (SDL) or uplink-only (SUL) band used to provide additional capacity in the respective direction.
Standalone (SA) and Non-Standalone 5G Technology
Bands are also classified as either:
- SA – Stand Alone, meaning they can operate totally independent on 4G LTE networks, or
- NSA – Non Stand Alone, which require the data call to be established over 4G LTE with the 5G carrier then added as a secondary layer.
Due to the range of frequencies in use 5G NR uses four different Subcarrier Spacing (SCS) modes; 15, 30, and 60 kHz for sub-6 GHz (FR1) bands; 60 and 120 kHz for mmWave (FR2) bands. Channel bandwidths vary based on SCS, with many only supporting a 5 MHz channel width with an SCS of 15 kHz.
5G Technology and Millimeter Waves (mmWave)
Millimeter waves have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to smaller size; The waves also have trouble passing through building walls. Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks
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