## 5G NR Frame Structure

Exploring the 5G NR Frame Structure used in 5G New Radio networks and 5G Radio equipment: including gNodeB and 5G CPE devices

Frame Structure

The 5G NR frame structure is defined by the 3GPP and here we present details of the NR Frame Structure that is specified in 3GPP specification (38.211).

Numerology – Subcarrier Spacing

Compared to LTE numerology (subcarrier spacing and symbol length), the most outstanding difference you can notice is that NR support multiple different types of subcarrier spacing (in LTE there is only one type of subcarrier spacing, 15 KHz). The types NR numerology is summarized in 38.211 and I converted the table into illustration to give you intuitive understanding of these numerology.

As you see here, each numerology is labeled as a parameter(u, mu in Greek). The numerology (u = 0) represents 15 kHz which is same as LTE. And as you see in the second column the subcarrier spacing of other u is derived from (u=0) by scaling up in the power of 2.

Numerology and Slot Length

As illustrated below, Slot length gets different depending on numerology. The general tendency is that slot length gets shorter as subcarrier spacing gets wider. Actually this tendency comes from the nature of OFDM. You would see further details on how the slot length is derived in Radio Frame Structure section.

Numerology and Supported Channels

Not every numerology can be used for every physical channel and signals. That is, there is a specific numerologies that are used only for a certain type of physical channels even though majority of the numerologies can be used any type of physical channels. Following table shows which numerologies can be used for which physical channels.

< 38.300-Table 5.1-1: Supported transmission numerologies and additional info.>

OFDM Symbol Duration

Numerology – Sampling Time

Sampling time can be defined differently depending on Numerogy (i.e, Subcarrier Spacing) and in most case two types of Timing Unit Tc and Ts are used.

• Tc = 0.509 ns
• Ts = 32.552 ns

See Physical Layer Timing Unit page to see how these numbers are derived and to see some other timing units.

As described above, in 5G/NR multiple numerologies(waveform configuration like subframe spacing) are supported and the radio frame structure gets a little bit different depending on the type of the numerology. However, regardless of numerology the length of one radio frame and the length of one subfame is same.  The length of a Radio Frame is always 10 ms and the length of a subframe is always 1 ms.

What changes to accommodate the physical property of the different numerology ? Answer is to put different number of slots within one subfame. There is another varying parameter with numerology. It is the number of symbols within a slot. However, the number of symbols within a slot does not change with the numerology, it only changes with slot configuration type. For slot configuration 0, the number of symbols for a slot is always 14 and for slot configuration 1, the number of symbols for a slot is always 7.

Now look at details of radio frame structure for each numerology and slot configuration:

< Normal CP, Numerology = 0 >

In this configuration, a subframe has only one slot in it, it means a radio frame contains 10 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 14.

< Normal CP, Numerology = 1 >

In this configuration, a subframe has 2 slots in it, it means a radio frame contains 20 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 14.

< Normal CP, Numerology = 2 >

In this configuration, a subframe has 4 slots in it, it means a radio frame contains 40 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 14.

< Normal CP, Numerology = 3 >

In this configuration, a subframe has 8 slots in it, it means a radio frame contains 80 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 14.

< Normal CP, Numerology = 4 >

In this configuration, a subframe has 16 slots in it, it means a radio frame contains 160 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 14.

< Extended CP, Numerology = 2 >

In this configuration, a subframe has 8 slots in it, it means a radio frame contains 80 slots in it. The number of OFDM symbols within a slot is 12.

Slot Format

Slot Format indicates how each of symbols within a single slot is used. It defines which symbols are used for uplink and which symbols are used for downlink within a specific slot. In LTE TDD, if a subframe (equivalent to a Slot in NR) is configured for DL or UL, all of the symbols within the subframe should be used as DL or UL. But in NR, the symbols within a slot can be configured in various ways as follows.

• We don’t need to use every symbols within a slot (this can be a similar concept in LAA subframe where only a part of subframes can be used for data transmission).
• Single slot can be devided into multiple segments of consecutive symbols that can be used for DL , UL or Flexible.

Theoretically we can think of almost infinite number of possible combinations of DL symbol, UL symbol, Flexible Symbol within a slot, but 3GPP allows only 61 predefined symbol combination within a slot as in following table. These predefined symbol allocation of a slot called Slot Format. (For the details on how these Slot Format is being used in real operation, refer to Slot Format Combination page).

<38.213 v15.7 -Table 11.1.1-1: Slot formats for normal cyclic prefix>

Why we need so many different types of slot formats ? Key goal is to make NR scheduling flexible especially for TDD operation. By applying a slot format or combining different slot formats in sequence, we can implement various different types of scheduling as in the following example:

TDD DL/UL Common Configuration

See  TDD DL/UL Common Configuration page.

Resource Grid

The resource grid for NR is defined as follows. If you just take a look at the picture, you would think it is almost identical to LTE resource grid. But the physical dimension (i.e, subcarrier spacing, number of OFDM symbols within a radio frame) varies in NR depending on numerology.

The maximum and minimum number of Resource blocks for downlink and uplink is defined as below (this is different from LTE)

< 38.211 v1.0.0 Table 4.4.2-1: Minimum and maximum number of resource blocks.>

Following is the table that I converted the downlink portions of Table 4.4.2-1 into frequency Bandwidth just to give you the idea on what is the maximum RF bandwidth that a UE / gNB need to support for single carrier.

SS/PBCH

SS(PSS and SSS) and PBCH in NR is transmitted in the same 4 symbol block as specified in the following table.

< Frequency Domain Resource Allocation >

Overall description on the resource allocation for SS/PBCH block is described in 38.211 – 7.4.3.1 Time-frequency structure of an SS/PBCH block and followings are the summary of the specification.

• SS/PBCH block consists of 240 contiguous subcarriers (20 RBs)
• The subcarriers are numbered in increasing order from 0 to 239 within the SS/PBCH block
• The UE may assume that the contents(value) of the resource elements denoted as ‘Set to 0’ in Table 7.4.3.1-1 are set to zero. (This mean that the contents of the gray colored resource element in the SSB diagram shown below is filled with zeros).
• k_ssb corresponds to the gap between Subcarrier 0 of SS/PBCH block and Common Resource Block
• is obtained from the higher-layer parameter OffsetToPointA
• offset-ref-low-scs-ref-PRB corresponds to the FrequencyInfoDL.absoluteFrequencyPointA. Data type is ARFCN-ValueNR and the range of the value is INTEGER (0..3279165) in integer.
• There are two types of SS/PBCH Block
• Type A (Sub 6)
• k_ssb(k0 in older spec) = {0,1,2,…,23}
• 4 LSB bits of k_ssb value can informed to UE via ssb-subcarrierOffset in MIB
• The MSB bit is informed to UE via a bit within the PBCH Data ()
• is expressed in terms of 15 Khz subcarrier spacing
• u (numerology) = {0,1}, FR1 (sub 6 Ghz)
• is expressed in terms of 15 Khz subcarrier spacing
• Type B (mmWave)
• k_ssb(k0 in older spec) = {0,1,2,…,11}
• the whole k_ssb value can be informed to UE via ssb-subcarrierOffset in MIB
• is expressed in terms of the subcarrier spacing provided by the higher-layer parameter subCarrierSpacingCommon in MIB  .
• u (numerology) = {3,4}, FR2 (mmWave)
• is expressed in terms of 60 Khz subcarrier spacing

NOTE : Actually understanding k_ssb and  in the resource grid often get confusing and hard to visualize. The following is an example where the SubcarrierSpacingCommon is equal to 30KHz, and k_ssb=2, where in such a case the center of the first subcarrier of the SS/PBCH Block (which has 15KHz SCS) coincides with the center frequency of the subcarrier 1 of

This table can be represented in Resource Grid as shown below. Note that the position of PBCH DM-RS varies with v and the value v changes depending on Physical Cell ID.

< Time Domain Resource Allocation >

Following table indicates the first OFDM symbol number (s) where SS/PBCH is transmitted. This is based on 38.213 – 4.1 Cell Search.

The document states as follows :

• For a half frame with SS/PBCH blocks, the number and first symbol indexes for candidate SS/PBCH blocks are determined according to the subcarrier spacing of SS/PBCH blocks as follows.

This means that [38.213 – 4.1 Cell Search] specifies SS/PBCH location in time domain as illustrated below.

< Start Symbols for each subcarrier spacing and frequency >

Followings are examples of SSB Transmission for each cases. For the simplicity, I set the frequency domain location of SSB block to be located at the bottom of the system bandwidth, but in reality the frequency domain location can change to other location (e.g, center frequency of the system bandwidth). The main purpose of these examples is o show the time domain location (transmission pattern) of each cases. In real deployment, it is highly likely (but not necessarily) that the frequency domain location of the SSB located around the center frequency.

The example below shows how you can correlate the above table to the SSB transmission plot shown in the following examples.

# Beamforming, Beam Steering & Beam Switching with Massive MIMO for 5G compared

Combining the high propagation loss of the millimeter wavelengths (mmWaves) employed in 5G new radio (5G NR) systems, plus the higher bandwidth demands of users, combinations of beamforming techniques and massive Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) are essential for increasing spectral efficiencies and  providing cost-effective, reliable wireless network coverage.

#### Beamforming

Beamforming is the application of multiple radiating elements transmitting the same signal at an identical wavelength and phase, which combine to create a single antenna with a longer, more targeted stream which is formed by reinforcing the waves in a specific direction. The general concept was first employed in 1906 for trans-oceanic radio communications.

With more radiating elements that make up the antenna, the narrower the beam. An artifact of beamforming is side lobes. These are essentially unwanted radiation of the signal that forms the main lobe in different directions. Poor engineering of antenna arrays would result in excessive interference by a beamformed signal’s side lobe. The more radiating elements that make up the antenna, the more focused the main beam is and the weaker the side lobes are.

Figure 1: Beamforming with two and four radiating elements

While digital beamforming at the baseband processor is most commonly used today, analog beamforming in the RF domain can provide antenna gains that mitigate the lossy nature of 5G millimeter waves.

#### Beam steering and beam switching

Beam steering is achieved by changing the phase of the input signal on all radiating elements. Phase shifting allows the signal to be targeted at a specific receiver. An antenna can employ radiating elements with a common frequency to steer a single beam in a specific direction. Different frequency beams can also be steered in different directions to serve different users. The direction a signal is sent in is calculated dynamically by the base station as the endpoint moves, effectively tracking the user. If a beam cannot track a user, the endpoint may switch to a different beam.

Figure 2: Beam steering and beam switching

This granular degree of tracking is made possible by the fact that 5G base stations must be significantly closer to users than previous generations of mobile infrastructures.

#### Massive MIMO

Multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antennas have long been a feature of commercial public wireless and Wi-Fi systems, but 5G demands the application of massive MIMO. To increase the resiliency (signal-to-noise ratio / SNR) of a transmitted signal and the channel capacity, without increasing spectrum usage, a common frequency can be steered simultaneously in multiple directions.

The successful operation of MIMO systems requires the implementation of powerful digital signal processors and an environment with lots of signal interference, or “spatial diversity”; that is a rich diversity of signal paths between the transmitter and the receiver.

Figure 3: Multiple input and multiple output (MIMO)

Diversity of arrival times, as the signal is bounced from different obstacles, forms multiple time-division duplexing (TDD) channels that can deliver path redundancy for duplicate signals or increase the channel capacity by transmitting different parts of the modulated data. First conceived of in the 1980s, there are a few differences between classic multi-user MU-MIMO and Massive MIMO, but fundamentally it is still the large number of antennas employed and the large number of users supported. The degree of MIMO is indicated by the number of transmitters and the number of receivers, i.e. 4×4.

## Conclusion

Beamforming, Beam Steering, Beam Switching and Massive MIMO are key ingredients for 5G base stations.

## Is 5G Safe? Why do some people think it isn’t?

There’s currently huge controversy in the news today regarding safety of 5G: Is it safe, or not? 5G vendors & scientists say the technology is perfectly safe, and some members of the public allege that 5G isn’t safe. Here we examine the topics factually.

## Frequencies used by 5G

There is nothing magic or new about the frequencies used or proposed for 5G. They have ALL been used already, actually for decades! 5G frequencies are split into two sections: FR1 (less than 6GHz) and FR2 (high frequency microwave, or “millimeter wave”).

Almost ALL of the FR1 frequencies have already been used for 4G, and some before that for 3G, and 2G, back to the 1990’s. A good example is 900MHz (the original GSM system) and 1800MHz (second round of GSM). 2100MHz was used extensively for 3G. A few of the FR1 frequencies haven’t been used for 4G before (e.g. 3800 up to 4200MHz) but they have been used for other purposes before.

FR2 frequencies (millimeter wave, or mmWave) have already been used – very widely – for Point-to-Point microwave links. All of the FR2 bands (24Ghz, 26GHz, 28GHz, 38-40GHz, and even the proposed 60GHz) have been used for point-to-point terrestrial microwave links. Those are the parabolic dishes you see everywhere on rooftops or towers. These signals are highly directional “pencil beams” with typically 1 degree or less beam width. The number of these links globally is in the 100,000+ range: they are beaming signals around cities all over the world, usually connecting internet services, beaming signals up to 3G/4G towers or for links between corporate office networks. As a result of the creation of 5G technology, these frequencies are now being re-used (“re-farmed”) for use by 5G base stations to connect end users to the internet, using Point-to-multipoint beamforming technologies. Important note: the use of 5G is no more or less “scary” than the previous use for point to point links. Note that point-to-point microwave has existed since 1930: 90 years ago, and health risks (and lack of risk to public) are very well understood.

## Operating Distances

5G in lower frequencies travels longer distances than higher frequencies, due to laws of physics. This is why the lower frequencies are used for Rural locations for wide area coverage, whereas the higher frequencies are reserved for use in cities, where distances are shorter, and user densities higher.

Also, the lower frequencies (lower end of FR1) can be transmitted at higher power levels than the higher frequencies. Conversely, high frequencies (mmWave, FR2) are limited to lower power due to limitation of today’s commercial technology.

5G in the 24GHz, 26GHz, 28GHz range and above (also called millimeter wave, or mmWave bands) uses higher frequencies than 4G. As a result, these high frequency 5G signals are not capable of traveling large distances (over a few hundred meters), unlike 4G or lower frequency 5G signals (sub 6 GHz) so penetration and hence coverage are lower.
This higher frequency therefore requires placing 5G base stations every few hundred meters in order to use higher frequency bands.

## 5G and RF power levels

Some of the “5G Conspiracists” allege that 5G will cause damage/health risk to humans. There is simply no measured case or evidence of this happening. If there were, there would be scientists & health advisors demanding change. Let’s examine in more detail:

5G sites using FR1 transmit at exactly the SAME power levels as 4G sites. So you’re not irradiated any more than a 4G site was. 40W a typical figure for a macro (big) site, and 1W for a Small Cell (small site).
Note carefully: 5G FR1 sites use EXACTLY the same power levels as 4G sites, which is similar to 3G sites, and before that, 2G sites …
5G uses “sector antennas” (typically 3 on a macro site) just like 4G does.
Therefore any related health risk is therefore the same for 5G as it’s predecessors.

5G sites using FR2 transmit at MUCH lower power levels: less than 1 Watt typically. These high frequency signals have poor penetration of buildings and obstacles, so are generally “line of sight” only. As noted above, ALL of the FR2 frequencies have been used before, for terrestrial microwave links, and at similar power levels (less than 1 Watt).
The use of beamforming steers the signal to the required locations; this reduces the overall amount of transmitted power emitted into the air, and hence total radiation. Put simply, if you aren’t using your device, the base station doesn’t point power at you.

## How to 5G power levels compare to other Radio/RF transmitters?

The VERY good question conspiracists & “truthers” never discuss. Let’s go straight there.

• A TV transmitter such as Crystal Palace in London, UK currently transmits digital terrestrial Television at over 1200kW (1.2 MEGAWATT, or 1,200,000 watts), and has been transmitting TV since 1956.  That is 120 MILLION TIMES more power than a V-band 60GHz radio, and transmitting for over 60 years.   Did you hear “5G protesters” complaining about TV transmitters? No, because there’s no widespread history of health effects over 60 years .
• Airport Radars:   To keep planes flying safely, airport radars transmit pulses up to 25kW (25 kilowatts, or 25,000 Watts) into the air, with average power 2.1kW (2100 Watts).  Interestingly, these signals are at similar frequencies to 3G, 4G and 5G.  In the USA, 2.7 – 2.9 GHz is used.  Yet nobody complains about these high power levels of radar, which has been in constant use since the 1930s:  90 years.
• Digital Radio (DAB): Crystal Palace transmits digital radio with 18kW (18,000 Watts) of radio power. Compare that with 40W of a large (macro) 5G base station.
• Emergency Service (TETRA) Radios : used by police, fire & ambulances: transmit at up to 45 Watts. Very similar to the 40W of a large (macro) 5G base station.

You will notice that the HIGHEST powered transmitters are Television transmitters (Megawatt), Radars & Radio stations (10’s of Kilowatts). A macro 5G base station at 40W comes nowhere close. Note that these various transmitters are used on different frequencies, there’s no “one” frequency that is safer (or less safe) than another. It’s only the RF exposure (power) level that matters – specifically, the power incident on your own human body.

Why is there no mass hysteria from “Truthers” about TV, Radar and Radio transmitters? Because if they were THAT bad for our health, they would have been banned and switched off decades ago. Evern the largest (macro) 5G transmit powers are tiny by comparison.

## Key “Truther” points examined:

• 60GHz is absorbed by Oxygen in the bloodstream (Untrue)
Out in the open air this absorption is true : but not in the body! 60GHz signals are 40% reflected by skin surface, absorbed by water (body is 60% water), and does NOT enter the bloodstream. The “Truthers” invent Pseudo-science , claiming: “This causes Oxygen to not bind well to blood hemoglobin causing the body to become Oxygen starved (hypoxia)”  This statement is hopelessly unscientific.  The ultra low power 60GHz signals do not even penetrate human skin.  The signals are partly reflected and partly absorbed by the skin, preventing them entering the body and cannot cause the claimed effect.  There is NO scientific study which will back up this claimed hypoxia effect on the human body.  The “5G protesters” NEVER provide any, because there is no publication or science that would agree with their unscientific claims – it’s simply not impossible. They make stuff up to make you afraid, and sharing their website gives them more “hits”: Some have adverts on their sites. More clicks means more money for them! (Fear=money for some)
• 5G is a state-sponsored weapon: Untrue.
5G is simply a marketing term applied to the work of the 3GPP, a standards body which includes equipment vendors & operators, as a linear development of from work that was labelled 4G and 3G before it. Governments are not included in developing 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G… and future 6G technology – corporations are.
• Governments want to use 5G to control the population: Untrue,
in that 5G gives Government agencies no more data than 4G does. Your location, digital activities, content & data usage habits are already well known to Google, Facebook and – on warrant – Law Enforcement Agencies. 5G does not change this at all. You already gave all that data to companies 10 years ago when you bought a 3G smartphone, or signed up with Social Media sites, apps, Apple or Google services. Law enforcement agencies can demand access to that data with a warrant.
• IoT is scary: Untrue, in any way that relates to 5G.
“Internet of Things” is a marketing label applied to home gadgets – and industrial devices – that are connected via the Internet by either WiFi or cellular (4G, 5G) networks. The same IoT label applies to a WiFi doorbell. Main concern with IoT is DATA security, particularly physical security (locks, cars) and CCTV camera feeds. That has nothing to do with 5G, because the concern is the data security of the devices & security attitudes of companies that sell them. Note that the WiFi-connected IoT devices are a much greater security risk than 4G, 5G because WiFi is much easier for criminals to hack/spoof.
• 5G causes cancer: Untrue.
5G uses the same signals as 4G (FR1), plus some millimeter wave frequencies (FR2) which were previously used by microwave links for decades. There is no link to cancer in 30+ years of medical research and continued exposure to these signals. Microwave & radio signals used by 4G & 5G are NON-ionising radiation which is not hazardous except in massively high power levels (far more than 4G, 5G etc). The “dangerous” radiation type is IONISING radiation, including X-rays and similar. Those are not used for communication for this exact reason: they are dangerous.
(Side-note: X-Rays used in medicine are VERY carefully controlled. Had an X-Ray? note the operators have shielding everywhere, because they use it every day & could get higher does than patients. They regulate the dose to you carefully for your safety)
• 5G is linked to Coronavirus: Untrue.
There’s no link at all. Many of the countries with terrible cases of Coronavirus have no 5G. And vice versa. All the theories connecting the two have been soundly debunked by reputable & international scientists.
(Side note: there IS a link between Coronavirus deaths and air pollution: because the Coronavirus effect on the body attacks the lungs, putting patients with poor respiration are at great risk. Cleaning up diesel emissions, industrial cities & banning smoking would have saved 1000’s of lives from Coronavirus.)

## Power levels and Distance (very important topic)

The RF power emitted from the transmitter antenna spreads with distance. This means that a person some distance away from the tower only receives a weak signal. As you DOUBLE the distance, you receive one QUARTER the power level. This is called the “inverse square law”. What it means in practice is that a person 100’s of metres away from a base station is radiated with only microwatts of power, which is insignificant, especially compared to this next point:

The highest radiation of Radio signals you will get is from …. wait for it …

If you’re worried about 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G masts: stop now. The FIRST thing you must do is switch off your OWN phone, and never hold it against your head to talk. And if it’s in your pocket/jacket/handbag do remember, it’s still transmitting to the mast, updating it’s location to the network, and often up/downloading data to your apps continually. It’s still transmitting, even in “standby”.
If you’re not prepared to turn off your OWN PHONE, then stop worrying about masts at all. The signal from masts signal is over 1000 times weaker than your OWN PHONE when it reaches your body.

### 5G FR2 mmWave Penetration

Also, these higher frequency 5G signals cannot penetrate solid objects easily, such as cars, trees, and walls, because of the nature of these higher frequency electromagnetic waves. 5G cells can be deliberately designed to be as inconspicuous as possible, which finds applications in places like restaurants and shopping malls.

### Challenges for 5G Safety – for EVERYONE !

It is the responsibility of the 4G/5G cellular industry, national regulators, safety agencies and all academics to be truthful about the safety of all radio transmitters. There must be no cover-ups, lying, or partial truths. Medical research into possible risks of RF exposure must continue and be well funded. The industry needs to deliver reliable cellullar service without putting populations at risk. “Profit” cannot come at cost of public safety.

Conversely – “truthers” making up pseudo-science & invented “facts”, with blogs written by uneducated persons have so far resulted in:

• Violence and threats against telecom employees doing their jobs on sites
• 4G/5G sites being burned down (resulting in loss of service to Hospitals, including those treating Coronavirus and critical health conditions)
• Death threats and threats of violence against business owners.

Now think clearly and rationally: EVERYONE has a legal & moral responsibility to behave within the law and not to threaten the health of others.
Clearly those posting non-factual “truther” content on Internet websites & social medahave a responsibility to bear. If you are one of those authors, think carefully. Your action could well cause harm or death of others.

## I simply don’t believe you!

That’s the frequent response of someone when confronted with information that conflicts with their previously held opinion or prejudices. In the case of 5G, we have we have plenty of information sources. On the “5G is safe” side we have:

• All reputable Scientists Worldwide
• All national Governments
• Biologists Worldwide
• All safety Agencies Worldwide
• The Cellphone industry
• 30+ years of no measurable health effects of cellphones on worldwide population

And on the “5G is unsafe” side we have:

• Conspiracists without facts
• Non-scientific blog writers, some whom earn \$ from adverts on their blogs (!)
• Narcissists who want “likes” on posts, or TV appearances
• Easily-swayed but highly opinionated people
• NO evidence of health effects over 30+ years
• NO reputable scientists !

Have a careful think about what sources of information you take in forming your world view. Just two hundred years ago, our ancestors burned and drowned innocent people for “witchcraft”. Why are we any better informed than our ancestors? Answer: SCIENCE and EDUCATION. We use logic, rather than irrational and uninformed fear.

### Conclusion for 5G & Safety

There is a huge media frenzy and “truther sites” full of pseudo-science about 5G & safety. We suggest we make our decisions based on science and facts. Here’s our summary:

• 5G is no less safe than 4G. If you didn’t protest 4G, stop protesting 5G.
• (If you DID protest 4G, then carry on protesting, but remember, 5G is no less safe!)
• Millimeter wave” frequencies have already been used for 3 decades or more for terrestrial microwave links. We’ve already been irradiated by them for 30+ years, with no harm to us. 5G just re-uses these same frequencies.
• There is no measured health risk from “Millimeter Wave” signals in any credible study or publication. 60GHz doesn’t stop O2 in the blood, that’s a non-scientific myth invented by “truther” blogs. No medical reports or science to back up claims.
• “Millimeter wave” (FR2) transmitters are on average 50x less powerful than the lower frequency FR1 macro (main site) transmitters.
• The HIGHEST radiation you will get is from your OWN cellphone: it’s right next to your body, and transmits even in your pocket/jacket/handbag. If you’re worried, turn it off.
• Turning off 5G transmitters on masts makes AlMOST NO DIFFERENCE because the 2G, 3G, 4G transmitters on the mast are still transmitting, all at very similar power levels and frequencies, and distance to you is the same. Power levels radiated to your body remains almost unchanged whether you turn 5G on or off.
• Turning OFF all the cellphone masts will cause deaths. A LOT of them, as your loved ones can’t dial an ambulance, lost persons, persons caught in fires & crash victims can’t call help. Emergency responders also rely on the masts. Conversely, there’s no measured death rate from cellphone masts, in over 40 years of widespread use.
• LOGIC as well as ETHICS says leave the masts turned on.

## For Further Information

If you are interested in 5G Health & Safety:

## 5G FR2 Coverage and Penetration

5G in the 24GHz, 26GHz, 28GHz range and above (also called millimeter wave, or mmWave bands) uses higher frequencies than 4G. As a result, these high frequency 5G signals are not capable of traveling large distances (over a few hundred meters), unlike 4G or lower frequency 5G signals (sub 6 GHz) so penetration and hence coverage are lower.
This higher frequency therefore requires placing 5G base stations every few hundred meters in order to use higher frequency bands.

### 5G FR2 mmWave Penetration

Also, these higher frequency 5G signals cannot penetrate solid objects easily, such as cars, trees, and walls, because of the nature of these higher frequency electromagnetic waves. 5G cells can be deliberately designed to be as inconspicuous as possible, which finds applications in places like restaurants and shopping malls.

### Uses for 5G mmWave

While the initial focus for mobile operators is to quickly expand network capacities by starting deployments of 5G NR mmWave in existing dense urban markets, there are even more opportunities for mmWave beyond traditional macro networks. One area of interest is to bring mmWave indoors to address the exploding demand of fiber-like wireless broadband access in crowded venues, such as convention centers, concert halls, and stadiums. These venues have traditionally been challenged with limited network capacity, thereby constrained with the quality of service (e.g., slow speeds and unreliable connectivity) they can deliver. With mmWave’s significantly wider bandwidth and high spatial multiplexing gains, mobile operators and service providers could rapidly make multi-Gigabit, low-latency connectivity available to a large number of users.

Another exciting opportunity for mmWave is for private indoor enterprises, including offices, shop floors, meeting rooms and more. Imagine having virtually unlimited capacity and fiber-like wireless connectivity for your devices at work, no matter if it’s a smartphone, tablet, laptop, or mobile extended reality (XR). For these indoor deployment scenarios, we have also performed extensive study to show that significant coverage (i.e., >90%) and multi-Gbps median speeds can be achieved simply by co-siting mmWave small cells with existing LTE or Wi-Fi access points.

## For Further Information

If you are interested in 5G Deployment Solutions:

## CPRI, eCPRI and open vRAN: What’s happening?

Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) has been around for quite some time. But now, enhanced CPRI (eCPRI) is becoming an important technology to understand for 5G.

Before looking in detail at eCPRI, it’s helpful to understand some of the basic topology of the cellular network, which currently uses CPRI.

At the outer circle of a cellular network topology, remote radio units (RRUs) are distributed every few miles in cities and suburban areas. These RRUs comprise antennas and also some compute functionality.

Fiber runs from a cluster of these RRUs to connect to a more centralized baseband unit. The baseband unit is also sometimes called the “central processing unit.” Baseband units are typically distributed within approximately 10-mile circles for good coverage in populated areas. The connection between the RRUs and the base station is often referred to as “fronthaul.”

### eCPRI

CPRI is an interface that sends data from the RRUs to the baseband unit: CPRI is a serial interface, which is a very high-speed connection, a way to translate all those radio signals back to the computing function.

As we go to 5G, the fiber between the RRUs and the baseband unit is going to carry much more traffic, and that makes it more difficult to do a serial interface. Extreme 5G requirements are stretching the limits of fiber bandwidth.

Enter eCPRI, which is a way of splitting up the baseband functions and putting some of that functionality in the RRU to reduce the burden on the fiber.

AT&T is among many carriers that are working on eCPRI. AT&T has made “the world’s first” eCPRI connection for mmWave at its 5G Labs in Redmond, Washington. AT&T made calls testing eCPRI, using systems from both Nokia and Samsung Electronics America.

This opens the door for higher network throughput with less fiber, which will create more efficient mmWave deployments, among other benefits, This is also a significant step in creating an open architecture within the radio access network (RAN).

### Vendor lock-in

Another problem with the CPRI interface today is that it has become a proprietary technology.

In addition to supporting more bandwidth across fewer fibers, the enhanced CPRI also addresses the proprietary concerns. eCPRI will be an open interface, making it easier for carriers to mix and match vendor equipment for their RRUs and their baseband units.

Historically, because each vendor would have its own implementation of CPRI, it became proprietary. This forces carriers to buy both their RRUs and their baseband unit from the same vendor in order for the interface to work. With O-RAN this interface will be open. Carriers such as AT&T who implement eCPRI will be able to run equipment from different vendors, or even generic off-the-shelf equipment.

However, existing networks with CPRI installed will most likely remain in place for years to come.

## RadioMobile: Popular software for 5G Network Coverage planning

RadioMobile is a widely-available software package which can be used for 5G Network Coverage planning, including path profiling and clearance criteria, power budgets, choosing antenna sizes and tower heights.

For 5G Coverage Planning, the software package can be configured with the characteristics of your required radio network.

• Transmit Power
• Frequency Band
• Antenna Gain
• Antenna heights
• System losses
• CPE types and locations

The software enables quick and rapid calculation of link budget and fade margins for any frequency band.

## Terrain Database

The software uses the freely available SRTM terrain data which can download “on demand” for calculation of terrain heights.  Combined with LandCover, this enables estimation of trees/forests also.

## Line of Sight

The software uses the terrain database to allows quick establishment of available Line of Sight and “what if” adjustment of antenna/tower heights in a 5G radio network design

RadioMobile automatically calculates the Fresnel Zone for any required link, with graphical display enabling quick feasibility and identification of any obstacles to be noted.

## Radio Parameters & Network Properties

Any new user to Radio Mobile will have to enter link parameters for the chosen equipment.  This includes transmit power, receive sensitivity and antenna gains.  Some vendors such as CableFree include this data as a planning service with their products

## Radio Mobile: Free to Use

The Radio Mobile software is free to use including for commercial use.  Radio Mobile software is a copyright of Roger Coudé.  The author notes:

Although commercial use is not prohibited, the author cannot be held responsible for its usage. The outputs resulting from the program are under the entire responsibility of the user, and the user should conform to restrictions from external data sources.

## For Further information

5G NR (New Radio) is a new radio access technology (RAT) developed by 3GPP for the 5G (fifth generation) mobile network. It was designed to be the global standard for the air interface of 5G networks.

The 3GPP specification 38 series provides the technical details behind NR, the RAT beyond LTE.

The study on NR within 3GPP started in 2015, and the first specification release was made available by the end of 2017. While the 3GPP standardization process was ongoing, industry had already begun efforts to implement infrastructure compliant with the draft standard, with the expectation that the first large scale commercial launch of 5G New Radio would occur in 2019.

## Frequency bands

The Frequency bands for 5G New Radio are being separated into two frequency ranges:[4]

Frequency Range 1 (FR1), including sub-6 GHz frequency bands
Frequency Range 2 (FR2), including frequency bands in the mmWave range (20-60GHz)

## 5G NR Development

In 2018, 3GPP published Release 15, which include what is described as “Phase 1” standardization for the 5G NR standard. 3GPP is expected to publish Release 16, which include the “Phase 2” of 5G NR, by the end of year 2019

## 5G NR Deployment modes

Initial launches will depend on existing LTE 4G infrastructure in non-standalone (NSA) mode, before maturation of the standalone (SA) mode with the 5G core network.

### Non-Standalone mode

Non-Standalone (NSA) mode of 5G New Radio refers to an option of 5G NR deployment that depends on the control plane of existing LTE network for control functions, while 5G NR exclusively focused on user plane. The advantage of doing so is reported to speed up 5G adoption, however some operators and vendors have criticized prioritizing the introduction of 5G NR NSA on the grounds that it could hinder the implementation of the standalone mode of the network.

### Standalone mode

Standalone (SA) mode of 5G New Radio refers to using 5G cells for both signalling and information transfer. It includes the new 5G Packet Core architecture instead of relying on the 4G Evolved Packet Core. It would allow the deployment of 5G without the LTE network. It is expected to have lower cost, better efficiency, and assist development of new use cases.

## 5G Frequency Bands

Frequency bands for 5G are divided into “sub 6GHz” and “mmWave” bands. “Sub 6” is generally for longer range coverage, with in-building penetration. “mmWave” bands use higher frequencies which offer short range, and no or little penetration of building structures.

This list of 5G frequency bands is taken from the latest published version of the 3GPP TS 38.101,the following tables list the specified frequency bands and the channel bandwidths of the 5G NR standard.

Note that the NR bands are defined with prefix of “n”. When the NR band is overlapping with the 4G LTE band, they share the same band number.

### Frequency Range 1

BandDuplex mode[A 1]ƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink[A 2] (MHz)Downlink[A 3] (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
n1FDD2100IMTn651920 – 19802110 – 21701905, 10, 15, 20
n2FDD1900PCS[A 4]n251850 – 19101930 – 1990805, 10, 15, 20
n3FDD1800DCS1710 – 17851805 – 1880955, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n5FDD850CLR824 – 849869 – 894455, 10, 15, 20
n7FDD2600IMT‑E2500 – 25702620 – 26901205, 10, 15, 20
n8FDD900Extended GSM880 – 915925 – 960455, 10, 15, 20
n12FDD700Lower SMH699 – 716729 – 746305, 10, 15
n14FDD700Upper SMH788 – 798758 – 768−305, 10
n18FDD850Lower 800 (Japan)815 – 830860 – 875455, 10, 15
n20FDD800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862791 – 821−415, 10, 15, 20
n25FDD1900Extended PCS[A 5]1850 – 19151930 – 1995805, 10, 15, 20
n28FDD700APT703 – 748758 – 803555, 10, 15, 20
n30FDD2300WCS[A 6]2305 – 23152350 – 2360455, 10
n34TDD2100IMT2010 – 2025N/A5
n38TDD2600IMT‑E[A 7]2570 – 2620N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n39TDD1900DCS–IMT Gap1880 – 1920N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40
n40TDD2300S-Band2300 – 2400N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80
n41TDD2500BRSn902496 – 2690N/A10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n48TDD3500CBRS (US)3550 – 3700N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n50TDD1500L‑Band (EU)1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80[A 8]
n51TDD1500Extended L‑Band (EU)1427 – 1432N/A5
n65FDD2100Extended IMT1920 – 20102110 – 22001905, 10, 15, 20
n66FDD1700Extended AWS[A 9]1710 – 17802110 – 2200[6]4005, 10, 15, 20, 40
n70FDD2000AWS‑41695 – 17101995 – 20203005, 10, 15, 20[A 8], 25[A 8]
n71FDD600Digital Dividend (US)663 – 698617 – 652−465, 10, 15, 20
n74FDD1500Lower L‑Band (US)1427 – 14701475 – 1518485, 10, 15, 20
n75SDL1500L‑Band (EU)N/A1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n76SDL1500Extended L‑Band (EU)N/A1427 – 1432N/A5
n77TDD3700C-Band3300 – 4200N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n78TDD3500C-Bandn773300 – 3800N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
n79TDD4700C-Band4400 – 5000N/A40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n80SUL1800DCS1710 – 1785N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n81SUL900Extended GSM880 – 915N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n82SUL800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n83SUL700APT703 – 748N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n84SUL2100IMT1920 – 1980N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n86SUL1700Extended AWS1710 – 1780N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40
n90TDD2500BRS2496 – 2690N/A10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 90, 100
BandDuplex
mode[A 1]
ƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink[A 2] (MHz)Downlink[A 3] (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths[5] (MHz)
1. ^ Frequency division duplexing (FDD); time division duplexing (TDD); FDD supplemental downlink (SDL); FDD supplemental uplink (SUL)
2. ^ UE transmit; BS receive
3. ^ UE receive; BS transmit
4. ^ Blocks A–F
5. ^ Blocks A–G
6. ^ Blocks A–B
7. ^ Duplex Spacing
9. ^ Blocks A–J

## Frequency Range 2 (mmWave bands)

n25726LMDS26.50 – 29.5050, 100, 200, 400
n25824K-band24.25 – 27.5050, 100, 200, 400
n26039Ka-band37.00 – 40.0050, 100, 200, 400
n26128Ka-bandn25727.50 – 28.3550, 100, 200, 400
1.  Time division duplexing (TDD) mode

## 5G NR frequency bands

RF Frequency bands for 5G NR are being separated into two different frequency ranges.

## Frequency Range 1 (FR1)

FR1 includes sub-6GHz frequency bands, some of which are bands traditionally used by previous standards, but has been extended to cover potential new spectrum offerings from 410 MHz to 7125 MHz.

## Frequency Range 2 (FR2)

FR2 includes frequency bands from 24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz. Bands in this millimeter wave (mmWave, MMW) range have much shorter range but higher available bandwidth than bands in the FR1.

## Frequency bands and channel bandwidths

From the latest published version of the 3GPP TS 38.101, the following tables list the specified frequency bands and the channel bandwidths of the 5G NR standard.

Note that the NR bands are defined with prefix of “n”. When the NR band is overlapping with the legacy 4G LTE band, they share the same band number.

### Frequency Range 1

BandDuplex modeƒ (MHz)Common nameSubset of bandUplink (MHz)Downlink (MHz)Duplex spacing (MHz)Channel bandwidths (MHz)
n1FDD2100IMT1920 – 19802110 – 21701905, 10, 15, 20
n2FDD1900PCS[A 4]n251850 – 19101930 – 1990805, 10, 15, 20
n3FDD1800DCS1710 – 17851805 – 1880955, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n5FDD850CLR824 – 849869 – 894455, 10, 15, 20
n7FDD2600IMT‑E2500 – 25702620 – 26901205, 10, 15, 20
n8FDD900Extended GSM880 – 915925 – 960455, 10, 15, 20
n12FDD700Lower SMH699 – 716729 – 746305, 10, 15
n20FDD800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862791 – 821−415, 10, 15, 20
n25FDD1900Extended PCS1850 – 19151930 – 1995805, 10, 15, 20
n28FDD700APT703 – 748758 – 803555, 10, 15, 20
n34TDD2100IMT2010 – 2025N/A5
n38TDD2600IMT‑E[A 5]n412570 – 2620N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n39TDD1900DCS–IMT Gap1880 – 1920N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40
n40TDD2300S-Band2300 – 2400N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80
n41TDD2500BRS2496 – 2690N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n50TDD1500L‑Band (EU)1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80[A 6]
n51TDD1500Extended L‑Band (EU)1427 – 1432N/A5
n66FDD1700Extended AWS[A 7]1710 – 17802110 – 2200[6]4005, 10, 15, 20, 40
n70FDD2000AWS‑41695 – 17101995 – 20203005, 10, 15, 20[A 6], 25[A 6]
n71FDD600Digital Dividend (US)663 – 698617 – 652−465, 10, 15, 20
n74FDD1500Lower L‑Band (US)1427 – 14701475 – 1518485, 10, 15, 20
n75SDL[A 8]1500L‑Band (EU)N/A1432 – 1517N/A5, 10, 15, 20
n76SDL[A 8]1500Extended L‑Band (EU)N/A1427 – 1432N/A5
n77TDD3700C-Band3300 – 4200N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n78TDD3500C-Bandn773300 – 3800N/A10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n79TDD4700C-Band4400 – 5000N/A40, 50, 60, 80, 100
n80SUL[A 9]1800DCS1710 – 1785N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
n81SUL[A 9]900Extended GSM880 – 915N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n82SUL[A 9]800Digital Dividend (EU)832 – 862N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n83SUL[A 9]700APT703 – 748N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n84SUL[A 9]1900IMT1920 – 1980N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20
n86SUL[A 9]1700Extended AWSn801710 – 1780N/AN/A5, 10, 15, 20, 40